*You can apply Markov Chains and stochastic differential equations to magic. More abstractly, you can use partial differential equations of empirical observations of “magic” to model it in factual ways. Technically, when you make an event more likely, you are creating an attractor. You are probably familiar with attractors and repellors. Think of changing a future outcome as constraining events so that probabilities are attracted that outcome in a similar way you can get attractive forces by squaring some quantities. A basic example is a Lorentz Attractor. As an economist, you probably are used to using Markov Chains for roll rates.*

*A pendulum is a chaotic system, so if magic interacts with a pendulum to change how it swings to encode information, it is manipulating the stochastic properties of the system. While how it swings is random, we always know that it will eventually stop and hang straight down, so it is deterministic, albeit stochastic. Magic works similarly.*

*By determining what outcome you want to happen, you define a teleology that constrains events by creating an attractor so that stochastic properties that require the least amount of change are the events that occur. These properties are some of the reasons why physical models cannot factually explain these things because they violate the conservation of information, conservation of probability, and the second law of thermodynamics. If you watched a video of a rock being thrown through a window in reverse, it would appear as if the glass flew back into place and met the rock at the right moment. Intuitively, it would seem coordinated, which implies more information. From that perspective, the ability for magic to shift probability implies a property of reversal. The spell manipulates the future based on the spell’s parameters and not the history of that physical object, so it makes systems somewhat memoryless. That implies magic is literally a force of chaos and is very similar to markets and wealth since economic systems are stochastic and dynamical in very similar ways. Technically, you are changing things by mutating them via chaos, so eldritch archetypes are not too far removed from the truth. People like me are literally beings of chaos and our magical aura destabilizes reality…*