Stochastic Supertasks

Supertasks allow you to accomplish an infinite number of tasks in a finite amount of time. Find out how these paradoxical feats get even stranger once randomness is introduced. What happens when you try to empty an urn full of infinite balls? It turns out that whether the vase is empty or full at the end of an infinite amount of time depends on what order you try to empty it in.


Making Probability Mathematical

Throughout much of human history, people consciously and intentionally produced randomness. They frequently used dice – or dice-shaped animal bones and other random objects – to gamble, for entertainment, predict the future and communicate with deities. Despite all this engagement with controlled random processes, people didn’t really think of probability in mathematical terms prior to 1600.


Reversing Entropy with Maxwell’s Demon

Ultimately, entropy is a measure of the availability of free energy – of energy that isn’t hopelessly mixed in thermal equilibrium. Pump energy into a small system and complexity can thrive..


What is a Random Walk?

Random Walks are used in finance, computer science, psychology, biology and dozens of other scientific fields. They’re one of the most frequently used mathematical processes. So exactly what are Random Walks and how do they work?


Pilot Wave Theory and Quantum Realism

There are some pretty out-there explanations for the processes at work behind the incredibly successful mathematics of quantum mechanics – things are both waves and particles at the same time, the act of observation defines reality, cats are alive and dead, or even: the universe is constantly splitting into infinite alternate realities. The weird results of quantum experiments seem to demand weird explanations of the nature of reality.




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