Modal discourse concerns alternative ways things can be, e.g., what might be true, what isn’t true but could have been, what should be done. This entry focuses on counterfactual modality which concerns what is not, but could or would have been.
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In fiction and fantasy, magical characters can shape magical forces into constructs of physical forces. For example, Raven from DC Comics can create constructs from the dark energy of her soul form, Constantine can throw fireballs, and Zatanna can summon swords. Evocation in the Dresden Files specifically refers to conjuring blasts of fire, shields of air, and other forms of magical constructs that are physical things. When trying to give physicality to a magical or psychic construct, many people are unable to get it to physically interact with anything, and based on that lack of interaction, some people conclude that Read More
People frequently ask about the nature of magic, subtle energy, or psychic phenomena within occult and paranormal groups. Many paranormal communities, cultures, and pedagogies attempt to answer that question from the pragmatics and cultural frameworks of their respective paradigms. How different places and authors decide to answer these questions tends to be derived from a cultural perspective so that the answer is predicated by how cultures and communities do things. In many communities, a belief that cultural traditions predicate magic is so prevalent that many people in magical and occult communities expect people to practice some form of magic derived Read More
Chaos I: Motion and Determinism
The start of Chaos, with one of the foremost ideas of philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesis, who lived in the sixth century B.C. Creatures develop eternally, things have no substance and everything is always on the move: everything becomes everything, everything is everything. The first minutes of the film illustrate this idea with some everyday examples, as well as some mathematical ones.