In this post we present a high level introduction to evolution and to how we can use mathematical tools such as dynamical systems and Markov chains to model it. Questions about evolution then translate to questions about dynamical systems and Markov chains – some are easy to answer while others point to gaping holes in current techniques in algorithms and optimization.
What does the inside of a tesseract look like? Pascal’s Triangle can tell us.
You can find out how to fairly divide rent between three different people even when you don’t know the third person’s preferences! Find out how with Sperner’s Lemma.
The good old times tables lead a very exciting secret life involving the infamous Mandelbrot set, the ubiquitous cardioid and a myriad of hidden beautiful patterns. Time for the Mathologer to go on a serious fact-finding mission.
The mathematical material covered includes the basics of number theory (including unique factorization, congruences, the distribution of primes, and quadratic reciprocity) and of abstract algebra (including groups, rings, fields, and vector spaces). It also includes an introduction to discrete probability theory—this material is needed to properly treat the topics of probabilistic algorithms and cryptographic applications.